• Title
    Account of the work with Armenian refugees by Marshall Nathaniel Fox
  • Reference
    MS VOL 216
  • Date
  • Scope and Content
    A descriptive account of the first steps towards the housing of homeless Armenian refugees in Lebanon and Syria. Prepared by Marshall Nathaniel Fox to accompany the 'The Illustrated Report of the work done through the Nansen Office, Geneva'. Includes reports, papers and photographs. A list of contents at the front of the volume.
  • Extent
    1 box
  • Level of description
  • Creator
    • Fox, Marshall Nathaniel, 1872-1949
      Marshall Nathaniel Fox was the son of Nathaniel Fox (1835-1910) and Elizabeth Fox of Falmouth, Cornwall, and was born there on 8 November 1872.(1) From 1895-1903 he managed the publishing business of Headley Bros., having been trained as a printer. He visited China and Ceylon on behalf of the Friends Foreign Mission Association and on his return became the joint secretary of the Association. In 1907, he was recorded a minister by Southwark Monthly Meeting, London. In 1908 he married Anne Elizabeth Leslie, principal of the Girls' High School, Brummana, Lebanon, and the next year was appointed principal of the Boys' High School there. In Syria, during World War I, he worked for Armenian refugees and for Syria and the Palestine Relief Fund. Returning to Brummana after the war he remained there until 1928. Always concerned for Armenian refugees, he succeeded in raising money and building cottages for them. Retiring from Friends Service Council in 1919, he and his wife remained in Beirut, Lebanon, until 1947, making their home a centre for hospitality. He died on 24 February 1949, aged 76, at Kelvedon, Essex.(2) _________________ 1 Friends Service Council personnel records 2 Digest Register of Deaths
    • Nansen, Fridtjof, 1861-1930
      Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. Nansen was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1922 for his work as a League of Nations High Commissioner. Fridtjof Nansen was born at Store Frøen, near Oslo in 1861, the son of a prosperous lawyer. As a young man, he was an expert skater, swimmer and skier, excelling in drawing and sciences at school. He studied Zoology at the University of Oslo. Nansen initially started out as a pioneer sports skier, and soon became interested in Arctic exploration. He led the first crossing of Greenland by ski, and achieved great success with his Arctic expedition aboard Fram. He later became noted as a zoologist and oceanographer, and was a pioneer of the neuron theory. He was also a distinguished diplomat, eventually becoming Commissioner of refugees for the League of Nations. He was married to Eva Nansen (died 1907) and was the father of noted architect and humanist Odd Nansen and the grandfather of Eigil Nansen. World War I, Nansen became involved in the League of Nations as High Commissioner for several initiatives, including the organization of war prisoner exchanges and help for Russian refugees, during which campaign he created the Nansen passport for refugees. In his work to help the Russian peasants he was aided by Vidkun Quisling. In 1917 and 1918, Nansen was in Washington D.C., where he convinced the allies to allow essential food supplies to be brought through their blockade. In 1920, the League of Nations asked Nansen to aid the return of prisoners of war, most of whom were in Russia. With limited funds Nansen brought 450,000 prisoners of war home within a year and a half. In 1921, he was asked by the League of Nations to administer the newly-formed High Commission for Refugees. Nansen created the “Nansen passport” for refugees, which eventually became recognised by fifty-two governments. In December 1920, together with Lord Robert Cecil, Nansen lobbied, unsuccessfully, for Georgia’s admission to the League of Nations. In 1921 the Red Cross asked Nansen, to organize a relief program for the millions of Russians dying in the Russian Famine of 1921-1922. Western nations suspected that the Russian famine was created by government mismanagement of the economy and it was hard to obtain funding, but Nansen found enough supplies to help between 7,000,000 and 22,000,000 Russians. For the next few years, Nansen undertook further humanitarian work, and in 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was involved in the negotiations between the Greek and Turkish governments that lead to the Treaty of Lausanne. In the latter half of the 1920s he worked to solve the crisis starting as the Armenian Genocide of 1915 and involving the Armenians in Turkey. In present Armenia he is regarded as both a true humanitarian and a hero. In 1896, he was awarded the Grand Cross of The Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and in 1925, he received the Order's Collar. The Nansen Academy was founded in Lillehammer, Norway, in 1938. It was given the Nansen name by his family to work for democracy and the human ideals in a time of dictatorships in Europe. Its work to increase dialogue in war zones and for peace education continues today.
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